Drupal 7 Starter Guide

Drupal 7 开发指引



# 确认命令行环境和 web 环境为同一套 php 环境
php -r 'echo get_include_path()."\n";'
pear config-get php_dir
pear install PHP_CodeSniffer-2.9.1 # 安装 PHP 语法检查器

# 最新的 3.4.2 也能和 coder 一起工作
pear install PHP_CodeSniffer
downloading PHP_CodeSniffer-3.4.2.tgz ...
Starting to download PHP_CodeSniffer-3.4.2.tgz (637,880 bytes)
...........................................done: 637,880 bytes
install ok: channel://pear.php.net/PHP_CodeSniffer-3.4.2
drush dis -y captcha, googleanalytics
drush en -y views_ui, field_ui, og_ui, devel, coder_review, variable_admin
drush vset video_ffmpeg_path /usr/local/bin/ffmpeg
drush vset preprocess_js 0
drush vset preprocess_css 0
drush cc all

Entity 处理

# 按 ID 查 entity 详情
$node = entity_load_single('node', $nid);
dpm($node); # 调试变量,需要打开 Devel 模块。
dpm(entity_extract_ids('node', $node)); # 获取 Node ID,版本 ID,Bundle 名


JS 模版

 * @file
/* jshint esversion: 6 */
/* jshint unused:false, strict: false */
/* globals Drupal:object, jQuery:object */

(function ($) {
  Drupal.behaviors.<MODULE_NAME> = {

     * Attach behaviors to enhance UIs.
     * @param context document
     * @param settings Drupal.settings
     * @see Drupal.attachBehaviors JSDoc.
    attach: function(context, settings) {
      $('body', context).once('-body-attach', function () {
      // once finished.


PHP 与 JS 传值

drupal_add_js(array('<MODULE_NAME>' => $settings_array), 'setting');
$link = l('LINK_NAME', 'PATH_OR_URL', array(
  'attributes' => array(
    'class' => array('button'),
    'target' => '_blank',

调试相关 settings.php 设置

$conf['theme_debug'] = TRUE;
$conf['https'] = TRUE;
$conf['drupal_http_request_fails'] = FALSE;
$conf['error_level'] = ERROR_REPORTING_DISPLAY_ALL;
#$conf['error_level'] = ERROR_REPORTING_HIDE;

Drush 数据库运维 

# Backup site status
drush sql-dump | bzip2 -c > PATH_OF_BZ2_DUMP 

# Restore site status
redis-cli FLUSHALL
drush sql-drop -y
bzip2 -dc PATH_OF_BZ2_DUMP | `drush sqlc`

MySQL 数据巡查

# 90 天内活跃(登录)用户数
SELECT count(uid) 
  FROM users
 WHERE status = 1 
   AND from_unixtime(login) BETWEEN DATE_SUB(NOW(), INTERVAL 90 DAY) AND NOW();



Form 生命周期图



巡查 SQL

查看 Drupal DB API 生成的 SQL 语句:

$sql = $query->__toString();


Drush 连不上 Drupal 网站

正确运行 Drush 命令,需要相同命令行环境下 mysql 命令行客户端可以连上 Drupal 网站的数据库。默认 MAMP 环境下,单独安装的 mysql 命令行因为连不上 MySQL 数据库,会产生如下错误:

Command pm-updatestatus needs a higher bootstrap level to run - you will need to invoke drush from a more functional Drupal environment to run this command.                [error]
The drush command 'ups' could not be executed.                         [error]
Drush was not able to start (bootstrap) the Drupal database.           [error]
Hint: This may occur when Drush is trying to:
 * bootstrap a site that has not been installed or does not have a configured database. In this case you can select another site with a working database setup by specifying the URI to use with the --uri parameter on the command line. See `drush topic docs-aliases` for details.
 * connect the database through a socket. The socket file may be wrong or the php-cli may have no access to it in a jailed shell. See http://drupal.org/node/1428638 for details.

Drush was attempting to connect to: 
 Drupal version         :  7.59                                                        
 Site URI               :                                       
 Database driver        :  mysql                                                       
 Database hostname      :                                                   
 Database port          :  3306     
 Database username      :  root
 Database name          :  default 
 PHP configuration      :  /Applications/MAMP/bin/php/php7.0.26/conf/php.ini           
 PHP OS                 :  Darwin                                                      
 Drush script           :  /usr/local/bin/drush
 Drush version          :  8.1.14                                                      
 Drush temp directory   :  /tmp         
 Drush configuration    :               
 Drush alias files      :               
 Drupal root            :  /var/www/html
 Drupal Settings File   :  sites/default/settings.php
 Site path              :  sites/default

通过在 ~/.profile 中,把 MAMP 的 php 和 mysql 命令行客户端所在目录的路径加入到 PATH 环境变量,可以解决此类问题。 

export PATH=/Applications/MAMP/Library/bin:/Applications/MAMP/bin/php/php7.0.27/bin:$PATH


安装指定版本 PHP

# 安装
sudo apt install php7.1-cli php7.1-fpm php7.1-json php7.1-common php7.1-mysql php7.1-zip php7.1-gd  php7.1-mbstring php7.1-curl php7.1-xml php7.1-bcmath php7.1-json php-pear
sudo apt install php7.3-cli php7.3-fpm php7.3-json php7.3-common php7.3-mysql php7.3-zip php7.3-gd  php7.3-mbstring php7.3-curl php7.3-xml php7.3-bcmath php7.3-json php-pear

sudo pear install PHP_CodeSniffer

# Drush
# 访问 https://github.com/drush-ops/drush/releases 下载 drush.phar

Nginx 设置


# 每小时执行
# Mac
0 * * * * /usr/local/bin/wget -O - -q -t 1 CRON_URL


 * @file
 * The debug file of Drupal functions.

 * Root directory of Drupal installation.
define('DRUPAL_ROOT', getcwd());

$_SERVER['SERVER_NAME'] = 'dev.moha.online';
$_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'] = 'dev.moha.online';

 * Required core files needed to run PHP script.
require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/bootstrap.inc';
require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/common.inc';
require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/module.inc';
require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/unicode.inc';
require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/path.inc';
require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/file.inc';

// Bootstrap Drupal to at least the database level so it can be accessed.

Author: njun
njun's picture
Updated: 2019/11/09